This is called "bezwaar". This procedure allows for the administrative body to correct possible mistakes themselves and is used to filter cases before going to court. Sometimes, instead of bezwaar, a different system is used called "administratief beroep" administrative appeal. The difference with bezwaar is that administratief beroep is filed with a different administrative body, usually a higher ranking one, than the administrative body that made the primary decision. Administratief beroep is available only if the law on which the primary decision is based specifically provides for it. An example involves objecting to a traffic ticket with the district attorney "officier van justitie", after which the decision can be appealed in court. While administrative decision making bodies are often controlled by larger governmental units, their decisions could be reviewed by a court of general jurisdiction under some principle of judicial review based upon due process United States or fundamental justice Canada. Judicial review of administrative decisions is different from an administrative appeal. When sitting in review of a decision, the Court will only look at the method in which the decision was arrived at, whereas in an administrative appeal the correctness of the decision itself will be examined, usually by a higher body in the agency. This difference is vital in appreciating administrative law in common law countries. The scope of judicial review may be limited to certain questions of fairness, or whether the administrative action is ultra vires.
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The current and prior editions of the Code of Federal Regulations and the List of CFR Sections Affected are located in closed stacks and available on microform or via FDsys 1996 – present or the subscription database HeinOnline 1938 present for onsite researchers. In addition to issuing rules and regulations, administrative agencies typically have the authority to enforce adjudicate those rules and regulations through hearing and decision making processes. Agency hearing decisions are published in official reporters and in many commercially published sources. Rulings by an administrative law judge or administrative tribunal are available in both print and electronic formats. For example, administrative hearing opinions from the National Labor Relations Board are available in the print sources Decisions and Orders of the National Labor Relations Board Government Printing Office and Labor Relations Reference Manual Bloomberg BNA, and electronically on the National Labor Relations Board website, . For a listing of official and commercial titles of federal agency decisions, see How to Find the Law, Appendix D 9th ed.