Like the CFR. and FR, the LSA is available on FDSys, . The current and prior editions of the Code of Federal Regulations and the List of CFR Sections Affected are located in closed stacks and available on microform or via FDsys 1996 – present or the subscription database HeinOnline 1938 present for onsite researchers. In addition to issuing rules and regulations, administrative agencies typically have the authority to enforce adjudicate those rules and regulations through hearing and decision making processes. Agency hearing decisions are published in official reporters and in many commercially published sources. Rulings by an administrative law judge or administrative tribunal are available in both print and electronic formats. For example, administrative hearing opinions from the National Labor Relations Board are available in the print sources Decisions and Orders of the National Labor Relations Board Government Printing Office and Labor Relations Reference Manual Bloomberg BNA, and electronically on the National Labor Relations Board website, . For a listing of official and commercial titles of federal agency decisions, see How to Find the Law, Appendix D 9th ed. 1989Call No. KF240 . C538, located at the Reference Desk, or visit the University of Virginia Library’s Administrative Decisions website, decisions, to see links to collections of online federal administrative agency decisions arranged by agency name and subject.
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The Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz VwVfG, which was enacted in 1977, regulates the main administrative procedures of the federal government. It serves the purpose to ensure a treatment in accordance with the rule of law by the public authority. Furthermore, it contains the regulations for mass processes and expands the legal protection against the authorities. The VwVfG basically applies for the entire public administrative activities of federal agencies as well as federal state authorities, in case of making federal law. It defines the administrative act, the most common form of action in which the public administration occurs against a citizen. In addition to the regulation of the administrative procedure, the VwVfG also constitutes the legal protection in administrative law beyond the court procedure. The preliminary proceeding gives each citizen, feeling unlawfully mistreated by an authority, the possibility to object and to force a review of an administrative act without going to court. Therefore, it is necessary to have the existence of a conflict in public law without any constitutional aspects and no assignment to another jurisdiction. Before going to court, citizens must usually first object to the decision with the administrative body who made it. This is called "bezwaar". This procedure allows for the administrative body to correct possible mistakes themselves and is used to filter cases before going to court.